Dorzhu Z. Iu., Ochur N. M. The role of education in the transformation of the status of women in the Tuvan People’s Republic, p.106-114

The article deals with the process of attracting Tuvan women to education as a conse-quence of political and socio-economic transformations, as a result of the formation of the independent state of the Tuvan People’s Republic in 1921. Amongst the ruling elite and the lamas of the clergy there were 106 literate and 286 illiterate people out of the 52 700 people in the population of the People’s Republic of China, who knew the Mongolian language. The bulk of the Arats could not write and read.
National literacy policy was adopted in 1930. The main element of public education was an elementary school with a four-year term of study. There were three types of schools organized: boarding schools, apprenticeship schools and summer schools.
Female education was difficult to break in. Former chieftains and lamas intimidated the people by saying that the study of reading and writing is forbidden by Buddhist teachings, causes female sterility and is harmful to pregnant women. Despite this, courses were created to eliminate illiteracy. For example, in 1937 about 16 thousand women received some education. In 1932 women’s literacy was 12 %, in 1938 — 74 %, and 25 women were teachers.
The leadership and activities of the Tuvan People’s Revolutionary Party, the Women’s Council, played an important role in eliminating the illiteracy of the population. In the sprea-ding of education, in providing schools with personnel, the USSR rendered great assistance. In general, the period 1921—1944 under Tuvan People’s Republic is characterized by a signif-icant increase in the general educational and professional level of women. The example of Hertec Anchima, one of the first to study and receive education, shows that women’s literacy has become one of the main conditions for their participation in public life, and engaging in solving social and cultural problems, areas of activities that were closest to them.
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