Krestyannikov E. A. From the history of women’s advocacy in the Russian Empire: around the case of E. F. Kozmina (1870s), p.118-128

With the establishment of the Judicial Statutes in 1864, the legal profession appeared in Russia. To become its employee, a higher legal education was required, which meant that the profession closed its doors to women who did not have the right to such an education. Ten years later, private lawyers appeared, and regardless of their level of education, they could join a professional association. Using the example of the case of E. F. Kozmina, the article shows the attempts of Russian women to obtain certificates from private attorneys and carry out legal activities in the 1870s. The article analyzes the discriminatory acts that continued to prevent women from joining the legal profession in subsequent decades.
Read in PDF