Kletsina I. S., Vekilova S. A. Gender relations in the Russian family: transformation trends, p. 78-91

The article presents an analytical study conducted on the basis of empirical socio-psychological and sociological works of domestic authors devoted to the problem of gender relations in the family. Changes occurring to the family are considered as the evolution of the family and the transformation of family structures that naturally change over time. The focus is on such phenomena as the differentiation of roles and status positions of the spouses. Two levels of representation of gender relations are studied: behavioral practices of spouses implemented in everyday life (objective, actually observed behavior in matrimonial roles and status positions), and perceptions and attitudes regarding what relationships between family men and women should be (subjective perceptions of matrimony). Analysis of the socio-psychological and sociological publications, which provide empirical research data, made it possible to identify the following trends in gender relations changes in the family. The first trend defines the main sustainable vector of changes in gender relations — from the traditional model to the egalitarian model. The number of families in which there is more justice between spouses in the distribution of responsibilities increases, the practice of interchangeability of roles in the family is expanding, there is a tendency to lack of primacy in the family, since the majority of family decisions are made by the spouses together. The egalitarian tendency is less pronounced in the following sphere: women continue to play the role of mistress of the house, and men – to play the role of breadwinner. Women, as before, are expected to carry out most of the household chores. The family man is expected to take on the responsibility for the financial security of the family. The second trend characterizing gender relations in modern families is associated with the presence of a simultaneous combination of traditional and egalitarian norms, ideas and attitudes among men and women. Most modern families are at an intermediate stage: from the traditional model of gender relations to the egalitarian one. Therefore, at the level of consciousness of men and women and in the actual practice of family behavior there are manifestations that characterize different models of gender family relations. The egalitarian model of gender relations in a family can act as such a normative sample, but it needs a more thorough and detailed description of all its components.
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