At present, scientists and experts believe, that the achievement of gender equality is one of the conditions of modern development efficiency. This conclusion is confirmed by the re-sults of numerous studies. However, the list of investigated factor variables that reflect the impact of gender inequality on the efficiency of national and regional socio-economic sys-tems is limited. Besides, tools of methods of an econometric research of the revealed dependences are not used. In 2010 we approved of a method of intercountry comparisons of a research of interrelation between the level of gender inequality and the parameters of the efficiency of national economies. In this article, this method was applied to reveal the significance of gender in the development of Russian regions. For the purpose of carrying out an econometric research,
using the technique offered by E. B. Mezentseva, a gender inequality Index of Russian Federation regions was calculated. The article presents the leading regions and regions-outsiders on this indicator. Econometric modeling results allowed to establish a relationship between the level of gender inequality and the efficiency of economic development of Russian regions, including the level of science development and implementation of scientific and technological progress. The obtained relationship between the reproduction of gender inequality and institutional efficiency of functioning of regional socio-economic systems were quite contradictory, which is determined by the region’s institutional design specifics and is a consequence of the low quality of the institutional environment in Russian regions as a whole. In the model, in contrast to the previously obtained global trends, an inverse relationship between the level of gender equality and the human development index is revealed. The model confirms the results of studies of N. V. Zubarevich, who suggests that gender equality is based on the degradation of human potential. It is established that reproduction of gender inequality strengthens differentiation of the population income. The conclusion is drawn that at preservation of the specified trends in the long term may lead to strengthening of disproportions of Russia regional development which will hinder growth rates of national economy in general.
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