Hmelevskaya S. A. Contemporary reproductive technologies (the example of AWT technology) and gender equality in the focus of ideas expressed by modern western feminists and Russian women’s movement activists in the 20s of the ХХ c., P. 134—151

Arguing their ideas, modern western feminists often appeal to science, which increasingly offers technologies that can significantly affect gender relations, and bring society closer to the so-called full gender equality. The article provides an example of such a technology — AWT technology, which is currently being actively developed in a number of research centers. Its essence is to create an exomb — an artificial womb in which the embryo/fetus can develop normally outside the mother’s body. Modern western feminists see in this technology a path leading to an equal distribution of reproductive roles, which, in their opinion, is the biological basis of gender equality. The article presents similar ideas expressed by Russian activists of the women’s movement in the 20s of the XX c., taking into account that they were formulated in a special historical and social context (in particular, in connection with the need to form a “new” person, the active inclusion of women in communist construction, the elimination of gender inequality). To substantiate this, the article uses archival documents that have not yet been introduced into scientific circulation and were studied by the author in the archive of the Central Committee of the CPSU (now RSASPH). In the final part of the article, conclusions are drawn that reveal the incorrectness of the justification of gender equality based on reproductive technologies. The author holds the idea that these technologies themselves can create new manifestations of not only gender, but also social inequality, set traps for those who are looking for a way to achieve full gender equality in these technologies.
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